BIOFERTILIZERS IN AGRICULTURE PDF!
Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity. Deepak Bhardwaj. Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry. Paula García-Fraile 1,*, Esther Menéndez 2, and Raúl Rivas 2. 1 Laboratory of Fungal. BIO-FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE IN AGRICULTURE. For a sustainable agriculture system, it is essential to use renewable inputs (fertilizer, pesticides, water.
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Besides playing role in nitrogen fixation, Azotobacter has the capacity to produce vitamins such as thiamine and riboflavin [ 24 ], and plant hormones viz.
This genus includes diverse species, namely, A. It is used biofertilizers in agriculture a biofertilizer for different crops viz. Azospirillum is another free-living, motile, gram variable and aerobic bacterium that can thrive in flooded conditions [ 6 ] and promotes various aspects of plant growth and development [ 29 ].
Azospirillum was shown to exert beneficial effects biofertilizers in agriculture plant growth and crop yields both in greenhouse and in field trials [ 30 ]. Diverse species of the genus Azospirillum including A.
Interestingly, it was observed that Azospirillum inoculation can change the root morphology via producing plant growth regulating substances [ 31 ] via siderophore production [ 6 ].
It also increases the number of biofertilizers in agriculture roots and enhances root hairs formation to provide more root surface area to absorb sufficient nutrients [ 32 ].
This improves the water status of plant and aids the nutrient profile in the advancement of plant growth and development [ 3334 ].
Co-inoculation of Azospirillium brasilense and Rhizobium biofertilizers in agriculture plus 2,4D posed positive effect on grain yield and N,P,K content of Triticum aestivum[ 35 ]. Rhizobium has been used as an efficient nitrogen fixer for many years.
Biofertilizers – an Innovative Tool for Agriculture
It plays an important role in increasing yield by converting atmospheric nitrogen into usable biofertilizers in agriculture [ 36 ]. Being resistant to different temperature ranges Rhizobium normally enters the root hairs, multiplies there and forms nodules [ 37 ].
Rhizobium inoculants in different locations and soil types were reported to significantly increase the grain yields of bengal gram [ 38 ], lentil [ 39 ], pea, alfalfa and sugar beet rhizosphere [ 40 ], berseem [ 41 ], ground nut [ 36 ] and soybean [ 42 ].
These Rhizobium isolates obtained from wild rice have been reported to supply nitrogen to the rice plant to promote growth and development [ 43 ]. One of the species of Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium meliloti infects plants other than leguminous plants like rice to promote growth by enhancing endogenous level of plant hormone and photosynthesis performance to confer plant tolerance to stress [ 44 biofertilizers in agriculture.
It is also one of the important components of integrated nutrient management, as they are cost effective and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.
The aim of biofertilizers is to complement and, where appropriate, replace conventional chemical fertilizers so that their use can be reduced with biofertilizers in agriculture resulting economic and environmental benefits.
They encourage plants to absorb, on their own, a greater quantity of nutrients which, even if biofertilizers in agriculture are naturally present in the soil, on occasions cannot be assimilated by plants because they are in an insoluble form.
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Conventional chemical fertilizers, however, supply the soil with chemical elements which, despite functioning as a fertilizer, can end up contaminating aquifers if they are not managed in the right dose and at the right moment.
Types of Biofertilizers The various types of biofertilizers biofertilizers in agriculture help the plant to grow at different levels of biofertilizers in agriculture growth are: These professionals are having the educational qualifications from Diploma in Agriculture to Ph.
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