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Vocabulary American Versus British Words British and Canada de ozonio English have developed distinct vocabularies for many aspects of modern life, especially in such semantic domains as clothingfood and transportation. In general, Canadians follow the American canada de ozonio in these cases; like Americans, they say apartment rather than flat, diaper rather than nappy, elevator rather than lift, flashlight rather than torch, freight car rather than goods wagon, fries rather than chips Canadian chips are what the British call crispspants rather than trousers, sweater rather than jumper, truck rather than lorry, and wrench rather than spanner.

About the ozone layer

Canadian cars, like American, have hoods, fenders, mufflers, trunks, turn signals and windshields — not bonnets, wings, silencers, boots, indicators and windscreens — and drive on canada de ozonio from gas stations, not petrol from filling stations or petrol stations.

In a few cases, however, most Canadians prefer British words: Canadianisms Canadians also display a small set of their canada de ozonio unique vocabulary, which can be called Canadianisms. In discussing Canadianisms, it is important to distinguish between international words for things that occur only or mostly in Canada, and uniquely Canadian words for things that occur internationally.

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The first type of word represents the uniqueness of Canada but not of Canada de ozonio English. It is not difficult to think of distinctively Canadian things: All of these things contribute to a Canadian cultural identity canada de ozonio their names are Canadian words in one sense, yet if people outside Canada found occasion to refer to them, they would use the same words as Canadians.

In a parallel way, Canadians use Australian words like boomerang, didgeridoo, kangaroo and koala; these words are part of World English, not of Canadian or Australian English exclusively.

Only the second type of word, where Canadians use their own word for something that has other names in other dialects, is a true Canadianism in the linguistic sense.

Some examples include the following: Nonetheless, Canadian English often shows variation in the use of these words, with Canadianisms competing with other words, usually the American variants. This sometimes results in the decline or disappearance of Canadianisms.

The best-known example is chesterfield, which used to be the canada de ozonio Canadian term for what is called a couch in the US and a sofa or settee in Britain; today, while some older Canadians continue to use chesterfield, most younger Canadians say couch.

Canadian English

Loanwords The French and Canada de ozonio were not, of course, the first people to occupy the canada de ozonio that became Canada; for thousands of years before their arrival, it was home to a wide array of Indigenous cultures and their languages.

When European settlers arrived, many of the things they encountered, like aspects of the natural environmentwere already familiar to them and were given pre-existing European names: Even many unfamiliar things were given European names, adapted to fit new, North American meanings, like robinwhich denotes different birds in North America and Europe.

Many terms connected with Indigenous cultures, like chief, dogsledharpoon, peace pipe, snowshoesun dance and sweat lodgeare also of European origin. In a few cases, however, words were borrowed from Indigenous languages.

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Many of these are shared with American English, since the international border is irrelevant to the natural and Indigenous worlds. A few examples of Indigenous loanwords in North American English are caribouchinookchipmunkhusky, iglooinukshukkamik, kayakmoccasincanada de ozoniomucky-muck, muklukmuskegpowwowraccoonsaskatoonskunksockeye, teepeetobogganwapiti and wigwam.

Admittedly, most of these do not occur very often in everyday speech and their number is remarkably small, compared to the much larger vocabulary transferred from European languages. The major contribution of Indigenous languages to Canadian English is therefore not in common nouns or other parts of ordinary vocabulary, but in place names, something few modern Canadians stop to think about: Along with Canadian Raising of mouth canada de ozonio, discussed above, the most popular stereotype of Canadian English is the word ehadded to the end of a phrase to solicit confirmation that the hearer has understood or agrees with what the speaker is saying.

Spelling One domain where Canadian English shows a more balanced mixture of American and British standards is spelling, reflecting a continued belief among many Canadian educators and others in positions of linguistic authority that British English is more correct than American.

Other British spellings preferred by Canadians are cheque over American check, grey over gray canada de ozonio travelled over traveled. There are many inconsistencies, however: Canadians prefer British catalogue to American catalog but not British programme to American program, while use of British defence and American defense is mixed.


Moreover, some British spellings rarely occur in Canada, like kerb for curb and tyre for tire, or some foreign-influenced spellings of fancy words like analyse, criticise, paediatrics and foetus. Technological developments have tended to canada de ozonio American influence on Canadian spelling, with American spellings normalized by the use of American-made canada de ozonio applications in word-processing programs and intensive exposure to written American English on the Internet, especially among younger Canadians.

It might be said that tolerance of disagreement about spelling is in any case a truer reflection of the modern Canadian character than a rigid adherence to British standards.