GONZALO MAGINOT PDF!
WHAT IF THE ENTIRE WORLD WAS THE MAGINOT LINE? - Hearts of Iron 4 FORT ONLY - Duration: 18 minutes. The Spiffing Brit. , views; 1 month ago. Listen to INFORME LINEA MAGINOT by Calle Febrero for free. Follow Calle Febrero to never miss GONZALO RIQUERO EN CALLE FEBREROadded 1y ago. Fortifications—from simple walls and forts to the imposing Maginot labor in Francoist Spain, see, among others, Gonzalo Acosta Bono, José.
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Tone's fresh analysis will provoke new discussions and debates among historians and human rights scholars as they reexamine the war in which the concentration camp was invented, Cuba was born, Spain lost its empire, and America gained an overseas empire.
Costa Rica even has a Blue Zone, an area where people live extraordinarily long, healthy lives. To some extent, Costa Rica is simply lucky: The Costa Rican people made very good social decisions, ranging from an avowed commitment to social democracy at the national level, to local land distribution to develop stable middle class farmers.
This article examines a late example of this trend: Particularly after the liberation of France inthe Francoist regime engaged in a serious effort to build a fortification system in the Pyrenees, fearing a potential invasion; by the early s, several thousands of bunkers formed what became the Pyrenees Line.
Through these efforts, the Francoist army attempted to convert what Spanish fascists regarded as a spiritual wall—the political border with France—into a truly physical separation.
Today, the remaining fortifications are material ruins of gonzalo maginot Spanish isolation after the Second World War, when the Francoist regime closed in on itself, until the Cold War, when Francisco Franco became a US ally.
Republic of Egos: A Social History of the Spanish Civil War - Michael Seidman - Google Книги
Altogether, gonzalo maginot case of the militarization of the Pyrenees shows how walls, fences, and other forms of fortification can be a fertile ground for environmental history to explore the mix of culture and nature as well as the political implications of the concept gonzalo maginot natural borders.
As the troops reached the Pyrenees border, following on the heels of the fleeing loyalist army, one of the first prophets of fascism in Spain went into ecstasy.
Scattered along the Spanish side of the Pyrenean border, from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean and ranging to a depth of sixty kilometers from the frontier, approximately 4, fortifications, built on the top of hills and cliffs, stood guard over roads and valleys—the result of a vast project conceived early after the Civil War and secretly put into use as the collapse of the Axis armies approached in Although these fortifications of the so-called Pyrenees Line were the subject of discussion at the United Nations in and were analyzed by the US Joint Chief of Staff inthey began to fall into oblivion after the consolidation of the Cold War and the Pact of Madrid, which signaled the rapprochement between Spain and the United States.
The US military, after all, was interested in building naval and air bases in gonzalo maginot Iberian Peninsula, not in obsolete field defenses along the French border. Although short-lived, the Pyrenees Line constituted a late example of a military trend much in vogue during the interwar period.
Growing out of the muddy trenches of the First World War, these neat fortification systems inextricably mixed nature with culture, forests with concrete, and mountains with steel.
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Guarding the national borders, disguised in the landscape, they were often seen as embodying the natural values of the gonzalo maginot. However, when they were finally put to gonzalo maginot test, they proved of little use in a new war based on the mechanization of warfare, and most failed to accomplish their purpose.
Fortifications—from simple walls and forts to the imposing Maginot Line—have been used to create, mark, or reinforce social and political borders, often relying on geographical and landscape features.
But, above all else, they have been erected, developed, and perfected to prevent the entry of those regarded as being undesirable.
By examining the symbolic and material development of the Francoist Pyrenees Line, this article contributes to the historiography of twentieth-century Spain, the Francoist regime, and the growing literature on war and environment.
Second, in providing a Spanish case study, it contributes to the literature on the environmental history of war with significance beyond the European context, as demonstrated by the close attention that US military planners devoted to the region during the early Cold War.
But the case of the Pyrenees also illustrates that in order to fulfill the main aim of a fortification project—that is, gonzalo maginot the socioecological continuum—control over people and space was at least as important as the capability to design and build a system of defenses and bunkers.
gonzalo maginot From the Mediterranean Sea to the Bay of Biscay, several peaks exceed 3, meters and form a geographical feature of great historical and symbolic meaning, containing one of the first national parks established in Spain. The kilometer-long central region of the massif, between the Roncal and Segre rivers, averages more than 2, meters in elevation and marks a fairly clear line between the northern and southern climate and biota.
He shows how price controls and inflation in the Republican zone encouraged peasant hoarding, black marketing, and unrest among urban workers.