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Carbocations These are the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing positive charge. These are electron deficient species. Carbocations contain six electrons in the valence shell.

Organic chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques notes

These are also planar chemical species i. Carbanions These are also the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing negative charge and 8 electrons in its valence shell These have pyramidal shape with Sp3 hybridised carbon having one organic chemistry notes pair The order of stability of carbanions is 4.

Carbenes These are divalent carbon species having two non-bonding electrons along WIth two bond pairs. These are obtained by photolysis or pyrolysis. These are of two types: Then Hybridised orbitals contain no electrons and a hybridised orbital organic chemistry notes two electrons: Singlet carbene has bent structure and is less stable than triplet carbene.

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Notes : General Organic Chemistry

The order of stability of singlet carbenes is ii Triplet organic chemistry notes In it, the central C-atom is sp-hybridised.

The sp — hybridised orbitals contain 1 electron each.

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  • Aliphatic Compounds

Triplet carbene has linear geometry. Nitrene These are neutral monovalent nitrogen species in which N atom has two unshared pair of electrons with a monovalent atom or group attached. These are obtained by thermolysis of azides and as reactive organic chemistry notes carbenes.

Arynes It contains a formal carbon-carbon triple bond in aromatic molecule. The additional bond is formed between two neighbouring C-atoms by sideways overlapping of two Sp2 orbitals. The new bond lies along with side of the ring and has little interaction with the 1t electron cloud lying above and below the ring.

The sideways overlapping is weak and thus, makes the benzene more reactive. Inductive Effect It is just like shifting of shared pair organic chemistry notes electrons in polar covalent molecules. If shared pair is more shifted towards the more electronegative atom, the less electronegative atom acquires slight positive charge and more electronegative atom acquires partial negative charge, e.

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Atoms or groups having greater electron affinity than hydrogen. Reactivity of carbonyl compound organic chemistry notes increased by — I showing groups. Electromeric Effect It is defined as the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as a reagent approaches it.

This effect is temporary. This effect is also called no bond formation or Baker Nathan organic chemistry notes.

Applications organic chemistry notes Hyperconjugation i Stability of alkenes More the number of a-hydrogen atoms, more stable is the alkene. Resonance Effect When all the properties of a molecule cannot be shown by a single structure and two or more structures are required to show all the properties of that molecule, then the structures are called resonating structures or canonical forms and the molecule is referred as resonance hybrid.

This phenomenon is called resonance.

The arrangement of atoms must be identical in all the formulae. The energy content of all the canonical forms must be nearly same.


Each canonical form must have the same number of unpaired electrons.